Wednesday, February 13, 2008

Global Climate Models

This interesting article addresses some of the key issues regarding Global Climate Models. A careful reading of this material could make a big difference in how you think about Global Climate Models.

If you base what you do on inaccurate information, you might be unpleasantly surprised by the consequences. Make sure you get the whole Global Climate Models story from informed sources.

The class of computer-driven models known as General Circulation Models or simply GCMs used for weather forecasting, understanding climate and projecting climate change are commonly called Global Climate Models. Syukuro Manabe and Kirk Bryan at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory in Princeton, New Jersey created the versions calculating decade to century time scale climate applications. These Global Climate Models are computer intensive numerical models based on the integration of a variety of dynamic, chemical, and biological equations.

Global Climate Models are differential equations based on the basic laws of physics, fluid motion, and chemistry. To implement a model, researchers divided the earth into a 3-dimensional grid, applying the basic equations, and evaluated the results. The atmospheric climate models are used to calculate the speed of winds, heat transfer, radiation, relative humidity, and surface hydrology within each grid and estimate relations with neighboring points. A major focus of Global Climate Models is to study the possibilities for humans to impact the climate and the impact of a changing climate on society and the environment. Climate Models developmental research aims on the formations of clouds and moist convection, ground hydrology, and the interaction between ocean atmosphere and ice, and also investigates more accurate numerical methods to determine climate change and its impact on society and environment. The program also focuses on developing techniques to deduce the properties of global cloud from measurements of satellite radiance of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. Ongoing field and laboratory programs in palynology, paleoclimate reconstruction, and other geophysical sciences offer essential data on climate for evaluating and validating model predictions.

The use of the Global Climate Models is primarily emphasized on investigation of climate sensitivity, including the climate system's response to such force like solar variability, anthropogenic and natural emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols, etc. The Global Climate Models also focuses on the global ocean circulation. Paleoclimatic evidence proposes that past climate shifts such as the glacial-interglacial cycles were connected with changes in the formation of the North Atlantic deep-water. This circulation inflicted transportation of strong northward heat, making the northern North Atlantic about 4°C warmer than corresponding latitudes in the Pacific. Climate variations in ocean circulation can cause significant climate change.

Various studies on Global Climate Models indicate that meltwater of dying continental ice masses might have led to the end of the formation of North Atlantic deep water, slowed down circulation, and cooled northern hemisphere climate. paleoclimatic records show that melted water from glacier has entered the Atlantic Ocean during a warm period preceding the Younger Dryas. a recent scenario supported by paleoceanographic data have resolved this absurdity and model simulations that water crossing the Greenland-Scotland Ridge inhibited a breakdown of the ocean circulation. This helped Europe to maintain the mild climatic condition during the Bolling warm period, despite the massive influx of meltwater.

A recent trend in GCMs is to extend them to become Earth system models which include sub-models for atmospheric chemistry or a carbon cycle model to predict changes in the levels of carbon dioxide due to changes in emissions.

As your knowledge about Global Climate Models continues to grow, you will begin to see how Global Climate Models fits into the overall scheme of things. Knowing how something relates to the rest of the world is important too.

Saturday, February 9, 2008

Economical Effects of global warming

If you have even a passing interest in the topic of Economical Effects of global warming, then you should take a look at the following information. This enlightening article presents some of the latest news on the subject of Economical Effects of global warming.

If you find yourself confused by what you've read to this point, don't despair. Everything should be crystal clear by the time you finish.

Economical Effects of global warming:- Among many other calamities that world had experienced in the past, global warming is one of them whose presence is being felt by the people all over the world. Although you must have heard a lot about this menacing natural phenomenon that can surely bring an impending doom on earth, yet no such preventive steps are taken on a strict basis. This unwanted increase in the average temperature of the Earth's surface, air and oceans since the recent past and its expectation of future continuity has been the major concern for the scientist as well as the common people in the world.

The effect of global warming has its sway on various spheres of life which also includes the economic aspect. The economical effects of global warming are a sincere concern which is troubling the people. When the global average air temperature near the earth's surface is rising for the past it can surely harm the economic life of the people. The amount of economic losses which will be experienced by the future world offers a scary statistics. Since the economical effects of global warming can be defined by taking care of several other factors. Since the global economy depends on both agriculture and other sectors, it is essential to know that there are various indirect harms which global warming is capable of doing. In the filed of agriculture the global warming will decrease the percentage of arable land, leading to low productivity and low exporting and importing.

Some of the top economists of the world have tried to estimate the future aggregate net economic costs of damages pertaining to climate change all over the world. Since the growth of temperature can further lead to melting of the ice capped regions, the water level will rise and the people in the coastal regions will be demolished. The rising temperature of the water is destroying the marine life at a fast pace and it will surely harm the fishing industry of the world. When it comes to other sectors of economy, they depend largely on water for their processing part. Some regions of the world will become dry and inherit arid type of climate which may not be congenial for their growth. The economical effects of global warming are vividly described by various programs conducted by the concerned agencies of the world.

The extreme heat and unwanted changes in climate will surely trigger the loss of global gross domestic product by up to 1%. The economists all around the world do predict that the global warming will have an adverse effect on the growth of infrastructure of the world. If people get affected by poor health and suffer form various diseases, it ultimately harms their potential and that leads to waste of human resources. The United Nations Environment Programs put emphasis on the fact that the prevalence of global warming in the world is capable of doing great harm to the insurers, re-insurers and bank. When it comes to other economic sectors, the economical effects of global warming will have a deep impact on agriculture and transport. Developing countries are considered to at larger economic risk than their developed counterpart.

So now you know a little bit about Economical Effects of global warming. Even if you don't know everything, you've done something worthwhile: you've expanded your knowledge.

Wednesday, February 6, 2008

Attribution of recent climate change

The best course of action to take sometimes isn't clear until you've listed and considered your alternatives on attribution of recent climate change. The following paragraphs should help clue you in to what the experts think is significant on global warming and impact on recent climate change.

Once you begin to move beyond basic background information, you begin to realize that there's more to Attribution of recent climate change than you may have first thought.

Global warming that has come up as a major threat to the people of the world in the recent years is actually the outcome of different attributions of recent climate change. Speaking about global warming it must be mentioned here that it refers to the rise in the average temperature of the world due to change in climatic condition. Scientists and weather experts, who are very much concerned about global warming and its consequences have identified several things as major reasons behind the continuous rise in average temperature of the world.

Speaking about attributions of recent climate change it has to be mentioned that there are several factors that have encouraged in the change in climatic conditions of all parts of the world in recent times. According to experts some of the scientifically ascertained mechanisms have led to recent climate change that has been observed in the last 50 years. Scientist have pointed out things like increased atmospheric concentration of greenhouse houses, increased atmospheric concentration of aerosols and global changes to land surface like deforestation and illegal killing of animals, use of chemical fertilizers in agricultural land occupying of agricultural lands for building houses as major attributions of recent climate change.

According to reports from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) the rate of atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases has gone up significantly and it forecasts more rise if necessary steps are not taken immediately. The report has clearly indicated that human activities like massive illegal deforestation in forest areas, killing of animals, massive rise in the emission of Carbon Dioxide from cars, vans, trucks, buses, airplanes and from buildings, specially the sky scrappers are highly responsible for the warming up of the weather all over the world. On the other hand, emission of methane from various sources have also contributed largely to increase in the rate of greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere.

Apart from that attributions of recent climate change also include concentration of aerosols in the atmosphere has made a negative impact on the climate. Due to rise in the concentration of aerosols in the atmosphere, the climatic conditions in the polar regions have been largely effected. Warmth in the average temperature has led to melting of ice in the polar regions. Recent survey have found that ice caps in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere have been significantly melted in the last few years which has not only led to rise in the water level of the oceans but has also effected the ecosystem there.

However, in the recent times the governments of all countries have considered these issues as threatening and are now taking strong steps to stop things like illegal deforestation and poaching. The governments have stressed on afforestation for creating replacement forests and are also making new rules and regulation for reducing air pollution. Cars of old models that were creating more air pollution have been banned from the market and scientists are working for inventing substitute fuels. Similarly people in the village areas are shifting towards organic farming to avoid use of chemical fertilizers that are also reasons behind global warming.

The day will come when you can use something you read about here to have a beneficial impact. Then you'll be glad you took the time to learn more about Attribution of recent climate change.

Sunday, February 3, 2008

Greenhouse effect stimulates Global Warming

Global warming, which is posing the greatest threat to the world and its people is now the most talked issue among scientists, geologists and weather experts. They are continuously discussing the matter among themselves to find out its causes and remedies. Surveys that have been conducted all over the world by them have pointed out greenhouse effect as the biggest cause of global warming and they are afraid that it is going to rise tremendously in the coming days leading to the rise of average temperature on the surface of the earth.

Speaking about greenhouse effect it has to be mentioned that concentration of greenhouse gases on the atmosphere has identified as the major reason behind the drastic change in the climatic condition of the world. But what is this greenhouse gas and how is it getting concentrated ion the atmosphere. Here greenhouse gas refers to the concentration of Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere. There are several sources that are emitting huge quantity of Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere.

According to scientists Carbon Dioxide which is emitted from the burning of fossil fuel is the most important source of Carbon Dioxide or greenhouse gas. The fuel which is burnt in cars and all other automobile vehicles are ;leading to the concentration of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Scientists are of the opinion that in the recent decades the number of automobile vehicles all over the world has increased rapidly and is likely to increase more. And that is the major matter of concern to them. Though governments in all countries have taken serious measures to reduce air pollution this might not be enough to bring down the level of greenhouse effect as the number of vehicles on the roads are continuously rising.

The Carbon Dioxide which is emitted from the chimney of factories have also been identified as major encouraging factors for greenhouse effect on the global temperature. According to scientists the coal which is burnt in factories are major source of Carbon Dioxide. Besides the fuel burnt in electricity generating plants are also emitting lot of Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere. Apart from that the smoke emitted by airplanes on the sky has also been blamed for encouraging greenhouse effect on the atmosphere. On the other hand Carbon Dioxide emitted from houses specially skyscrapers have also been held responsible for rising the level of concentration of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere.

However, speaking about greenhouse effect one must mention about the forest fores that are occurring in different parts of the world as a result of high temperature are also adding to the concentration of Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere. Besides scientists have also advocated stopping rapid deforestation as it is creating disturbance in the balance of the ecosystem.

Friday, February 1, 2008

Causes of Global warming

If you're seriously interested in knowing about Causes of Global warming, you need to think beyond the basics. This informative article takes a closer look at things you need to know about Causes of Global warming.

Think about what you've read so far. Does it reinforce what you already know about Causes of Global warming? Or was there something completely new? What about the remaining paragraphs?

In the recent times the term' global warming' has come up as one of the most serious issues. People all over the world are very much worried about the threats global warming is posing to them. Discussions are going on to resist its dominance, because scientists are forecasting dangerous consequences. That's why governments of all countries are taking serious initiatives for reducing the level of pollution as it has been pointed out as one of the major causes of global warming. According to scientists, geologists and weather experts, pollution is one of the major reasons behind the drastic rise in the average temperature of the world.

Speaking about causes of global warming it must be mentioned here that air pollution and water pollution are the biggest factors for the rise in global warming. Studies conducted by scientists, geologists and weather experts have found that the rise in the percentage of Carbon Dioxide in the air is the main cause of global warming in the world. Detailed information regrading things that have been pointed out as causes of global warming are given below:

Carbon Dioxide released from power plants: According to scientists, geologists and weather experts, the Carbon Dioxide emitted from the burning fossil fuels for electricity generation is a major reason behind the rise in global temperature. Apart from that coal that is burnt in electricity utility industry also account for a significant percentage of the Carbon Dioxide which is resulting in the rise in average temperature. Carbon Dioxide Emitted from Cars: According to weather experts and scientists, burning of gasoline in automobile vehicles like cars, motorbikes, buses and trucks are also major sources of Carbon Dioxide which is polluting the environment. Black smoke that come out of the automobile vehicles are highly responsible for air pollution. According to reports the percentage of air pollution is maximum in United States of America and that's why the government in the country has become very strict about controlling air pollution. Automobiles creating air pollution are fined heavily there. One of the main reason behind the rise in air pollution is the driving of sports cars that were specially made for driving in mountainous regions and deserts in the city roads.

Carbon Dioxide from Airplanes: Smoke released by traveling airplanes on the sky are also one of the major causes of global warming, according to experts. They are claiming that Carbon Dioxide released by the airplanes account for 3.5 per cent of global warming and they are afraid that the percentage could go up. Carbon Dioxide released from buildings, specially high rises are also responsible for causing global warming. On the other hand, Methane is the second most important reason behind global warming. IPCC is of the opinion that the percentage of Methane in the environment has increased by 104 per cent. According to their study Methane derived from sources like bacteria in bogs, fossil fuel production, rice paddies and bovine flatulence are factors encouraging global warming. Apart from these, massive deforestation, nitrous oxide, permafrost, city gridlock and Carbon in atmosphere and Oceans are also causes of global warming.

This article's coverage of the information is as complete as it can be today. But you should always leave open the possibility that future research could uncover new facts on causes of global warming.